Temperature of the Surface vs Temperature of the Heater Conductors

When conducting your thermal testing, it is important to know that there is a difference between the temperature of the mounting surface versus the temperature of the conductors inside the heater itself.


For example, if you are mounting a heater onto an aluminum plate and you want the aluminum plate to reach, say, 300°F, you likely will have the heater power up higher than 300°F so that it doesn’t take a long time for the plate to warm up. (The more extra power you use, the faster it will warm up.) Eventually, the heater and the plate stabilize at generally the same temperature, whether you control the heater or not. During this temp rise cycle, if you measure the aluminum plate and it says 300°, the conductors within the heater may be, for example, 350° because the heat not only goes into the aluminum plate, the heat also dissipates out the other side of the heater. If the heater is mounted ‘open face’ and is exposed to the air on the non-mounting surface side, that extra heat dissipates into the surrounding air.

However, air is not a great conductor – not nearly as conductive as the mounted surface side where the heat transfers into the mounting plate quickly due to its direct contact with the plate. Instead, the heat on the air side doesn’t exit from the heater as fast, further driving up the temperature of the conductor strands themselves, while becoming a contributing factor to the heater overheating.

Notably, it is the temperature of the individual heater strands within the heater itself that defines the limit of the heater, not the temperature of the plate.

The breakdown of the heater occurs when the temperature of the internal bonding adhesives holding the heater layers together exceeds the bonding adhesive’s temperature limits – and they delaminate. Specifically, it is the internal bond layers on both sides of the conductor that experience the highest temperature exposure. The foil conductor strands don’t fail because they are metal and won’t melt at anywhere close to this temperature. The insulative films (Teflon, fiberglass, polyimide) have high melt points so they, too, remain in-tact and perform insulating function.

The delamination that occurs within the heater causes the heater strands to lose contact with the mounting surface, creating an air gap between the plate and the heater strand. The result is that the heater strands no longer conduct quickly into the aluminum plate and the heat within the heater starts to rise. The heat builds and eventually things overheat, the surrounding encasement becomes brittle, the foil itself changes its metallurgical properties, thermal expansion takes place, and the combination of all of this causes burnout.

In reality, the thermal limit of the heater can be determined using an alternative method, such as this approach used in evaluating TurboFlex Teflon Fiberglass heaters. The true survival temperature of Teflon heaters can be determined by performing the opposite scenario. Instead of the heaters being powered and driving the heat generation, the aluminum mounting surface was raised to 450° through other means. The heater was passive and not powered, thus taking that influence out of the equation. In this method, the heaters are exposed to an accurate temperature throughout the body of the heater, and the testing confirms survival (no mechanical delamination) to 450° and higher. This way we know that the conductive strands were not experiencing a higher temperature than what the apparatus indicates.

Can the Heater Handle Higher Watt Densities?


In a general perspective, flexible heaters are commonly rated by watt density limits. Although this gives a decent indication, the watt density limit completely depends upon the customer’s application and if the product design is able to keep the heat within the heater below the bonding adhesive’s mechanical threshold. This will be due to factors that contribute to getting the heat out of the heater. Interestingly, we have successfully used heaters with more than 75 w/in² watt density – a remarkably high value. These heaters were compressed between plates and the assembly was driving thermal shock tests from -40° to +100°C. The watt density and wattage were high, but the heater itself never approached its thermal limit. Furthermore, since the heater was mechanically squeezed between two thick plates, there was not an opportunity for delamination to occur even if the adhesive broke down because the plates held the layers in-tact. The insulative properties of the film will remain whether the adhesive lost its adhesion characteristics or not.

So, although watt density limits provide a guideline, customers should perform thermal tests with their particular design/package to understand where the thermal limit is.

Silicone Rubber


Silicone Rubber heaters are typically rated higher than traditional polyimide heaters but they, too, can experience thermal failure due to overheating. The same issue exists where excess heat builds up within the internal layers of the heater.

This would be due to a couple factors:

  1.  Losing contact with the mounting surface.

The peel-and-stick adhesive pre-mounted on the back of the silicone rubber is just not as strong as PSAs that adhere foil heaters constructed of polyimide films. It’s likely that the weak link is not the adhesion to the plate , its adhesion of the PSA against the silicone rubber surface that lets loose. The SR just doesn’t provide as strong of bonding interface with its own mounting adhesive. This is why many SR heaters are pre-mounted against their mounting surface/plate at the heater manufacturer’s factory – where the uncured rubber heater is vulcanized to the plate rather than using a separate bonding adhesive to mount it.

Particularly evident when mounting onto a curved surface, the thickness of the silicone rubber introduces an inherent mechanical tension to want to return to its flat state. This essentially creates a continuous tensile force pulling itself off the curved surface – further contributing to the adhesion potential to delaminate off the plate throughout temperature swings.

2. The thermally insulative properties of the silicone rubber.

As mentioned earlier, conducting the heat from the heating element into the mounting surface is very important. Silicone rubber is not only much thicker than plastic films, (4X to 10X thicker), the SR material itself is significantly more thermally-insulative than these films. The result is that the heat can’t transfer as quickly, and therefore the element itself retains more heat. And similarly, on the opposite “open-face” side that is exposed to the air, the heat can’t dissipate into the surrounding air as quickly as well.

Countering this effect is that that rubber is a higher thermally-rated material than the bonding adhesives within a traditional polyimide heater.

Combined, these aspects are likely the root cause of over heating failures of Silicone Rubber heaters, resulting in the generation of hot spots within the heater which cause failure. This is independent of the likelihood that the silicone rubber heaters may have rugged, long lasting wire-based conductive strands within it.


Although heat generation is the functional purpose of flexible heaters, customers of flex heaters need to understand that the heaters can deliver a substantial amount of wattage/heat – much more than the heater itself can handle. They have little mass and are not designed to retain heat.

Yet in these high temperature applications, they can survive and can be highly reliable – provided the heat they generate is quickly pulled out of the heater and into the surroundings – through conduction.

What Is The Difference Between Silicone And Kapton Heater?

In today’s rapidly evolving technological landscape, keeping up with the latest innovations and advancements is crucial. If you are interested in exploring new materials and their applications, you’ve likely come across silicone heaters and Kapton heaters at some point. But have you ever wondered what exactly sets these two apart?

Difference Between Silicone And Kapton Heater


We know both types of heaters are widely used for their flexibility, durability, and high performance – but there’s more to it than meets the eye.

In this article, we’ll dive deep into understanding the fundamental differences between silicone and Kapton heaters so that when you encounter them again, you’ll be well-equipped with invaluable knowledge that sets you apart from them the rest.

Composition And Material Properties

Difference Between Silicone And Kapton Heater

Silicone rubber heater (top) and a polyimide heater (bottom).


When it comes to heater selection, understanding the differences in composition and material properties between silicone and Kapton heaters is essential.

Silicone heaters are made from a combination of fiberglass-reinforced silicone rubber sheets, which provide an even distribution of heat across different surfaces. This type of heater exhibits excellent flexibility, allowing it to conform to various shapes while maintaining its structural integrity. Additionally, silicone has impressive thermal conductivity properties, ensuring efficient heat transfer within the heating element.

On the other hand, Kapton heaters consist of a thin polyimide film that serves as the base for their construction. The heating elements within this polymer film are typically etched or printed using conductive materials such as copper or nickel-chromium alloys. One distinguishing feature of Kapton is its remarkable mechanical strength despite being lightweight and ultra-thin. Consequently, these heaters offer exceptional durability along with high-temperature resistance and superior electrical insulation quality.

Material comparison between silicone and Kapton heaters can be crucial when choosing the right solution for your specific application requirements. While both options deliver reliable performance under varying conditions, they also possess unique characteristics that set them apart.

For instance, silicone’s unmatched flexibility makes it ideal for applications involving irregularly shaped objects or where space constraints demand adaptability. Meanwhile, Kapton stands out due to its low profile design combined with extraordinary temperature tolerances – making it suitable for aerospace, medical devices, or electronics industries where weight reduction and compactness are critical factors.

Ultimately, appreciating these differences will allow you to make an informed decision tailored to your desired innovation outcomes.

Temperature Resistance And Tolerance

Difference Between Silicone And Kapton Heater

Having explored the composition and material properties of silicone and Kapton heaters, we will now delve into a crucial aspect that differentiates these two types of heaters: temperature resistance and tolerance. This factor plays an essential role in determining their suitability for specific applications, as it directly affects performance, reliability, and longevity.

One significant difference between silicone and Kapton heaters lies in their temperature accuracy. Silicone heaters typically offer better temperature uniformity across the heating surface due to the nature of their construction. The wire wound or etched foil elements embedded within the heater provide even heat distribution which is vital for many industrial processes.

On the other hand, Kapton heaters can also maintain good temperature accuracy; however, they may exhibit slight deviations in some cases because of resistance variability caused by changes in ambient conditions or manufacturing tolerances.

When considering high-temperature applications, both silicone and Kapton heaters demonstrate impressive capabilities but have distinct advantages depending on the situation. Silicone rubber heaters are known for their excellent flexibility at lower temperatures while maintaining heat stability up to 450°F (232°C). Meanwhile, Kapton polyimide film excels with its ultra-thin profile and ability to withstand extreme temperatures up to 600°F (315°C), making it ideal for use in aerospace or electronics industries where space constraints are critical.

As technology continues to advance rapidly, designers should carefully evaluate each heater’s unique attributes concerning temperature resistance and tolerance before deciding on the most suitable option for their innovative projects.

Flexibility And Thickness

Difference Between Silicone And Kapton Heater


One major difference between silicone and Kapton heaters lies in their flexibility and thickness.

Silicone heaters offer flexible installation due to the inherent adaptability of silicon rubber, which makes them suitable for a wide range of applications where uniform heating is required. These heaters can easily conform to different shapes and sizes without compromising performance, providing an innovative solution for those seeking customized heating elements that match their specific needs.

Kapton heaters are also known for offering thinner solutions compared to traditional heater types. This polyimide material boasts a higher strength-to-weight ratio than most other materials, making it ideal for space-constrained settings or lightweight applications where every gram counts.

The thinness of Kapton heaters allows them to be installed almost seamlessly within devices, minimizing any impact on overall design while still delivering efficient heat transfer across surfaces. With this unique combination of characteristics, these heaters have revolutionized various industries by enabling new possibilities in thermal management.

Both silicone and Kapton heaters provide excellent options depending on your application requirements; however, each type offers distinct advantages when it comes to flexibility and thickness. If you’re looking for a versatile and adaptable heating solution capable of handling complex geometries or tight spaces, consider opting for silicone-based products with their innate ability to bend and stretch as needed.

On the other hand, if weight reduction and unobtrusive integration rank high among your priorities, then the ultra-thin profile of Kapton heaters may prove more appealing given its potential to streamline device designs without sacrificing performance levels.

Application Areas And Industries

Difference Between Silicone And Kapton Heater


Both silicone rubber heaters and polyimide (Kapton) heaters have their unique properties that make them suitable for various applications. However, industry adaptability and customization options vary depending on the heater type.

Silicone heaters are known for their durability, flexibility, and resistance to chemicals and moisture. They can operate within a wide temperature range (-60°C to 260°C), making them ideal for use in industries such as food processing, packaging, medical equipment manufacturing, automotive engineering, aerospace technology, among others.

On the other hand, Kapton heaters are lightweight with excellent heat transfer capabilities. These thin-film flexible heaters boast low outgassing properties and high dielectric strength while maintaining a broad operating temperature range (-200°C to 400°C). This makes them perfect for applications where space constraints and weight limitations are critical concerns – often found in electronics manufacturing or vacuum environments.

The versatility of both silicone and Kapton heaters allows manufacturers to customize these products according to specific requirements regarding shape, size, wattage distribution patterns, voltage ratings, integrated sensors or thermostats, lead terminations or connectors – you name it! This level of adaptation paves the way for innovation across numerous fields; no matter your application demands or industry standards required by engineers worldwide.

So whether you need a reliable heating solution designed for harsh environments or looking into reducing overall system weight without compromising performance – there is always an optimal choice available in either silicone rubber or polyimide film-based technologies that cater best to your needs.

Cost And Durability Factors

Difference Between Silicone And Kapton Heater

Cost comparison and durability analysis are essential factors to consider when choosing between silicone and Kapton heaters.

Silicone heaters tend to have a higher initial cost due to the robustness of materials used in their construction. However, they offer longer service life, making them a more cost-effective solution over time for many applications.

On the other hand, Kapton heaters are relatively less expensive initially but may require more frequent replacements due to their lower tolerance towards mechanical stress.

When it comes to durability, silicone heaters possess excellent resistance against chemicals, moisture, and extreme temperatures. They can operate efficiently within a temperature range of -60°C (-76°F) to 230°C (446°F), which allows them to function well under harsh conditions typically found in industrial environments.

Moreover, their flexibility enables seamless integration with complex surfaces without causing damage or compromising performance. Conversely, while Kapton heaters also exhibit good chemical resistance properties and perform effectively in high-vacuum environments, they are more susceptible to cracking or delamination under continuous flexing or vibration.

Taking into account both cost and durability considerations, it becomes apparent that selecting an appropriate heater type ultimately depends on the specific requirements of the application at hand.

For projects demanding extended longevity and resilience against challenging environmental factors like aggressive chemicals or fluctuations in temperature extremes, investing in silicone heaters might be a wise choice from an innovation standpoint.

Alternatively, if the primary concern is achieving optimal heating performance with minimal upfront costs—particularly where constant flexing or vibrations aren’t significant issues—Kapton heaters could present as a viable option worth exploring further.


In conclusion, it’s essential to consider the specific requirements of your application when choosing between silicone and Kapton heaters.

Each material has its unique properties, such as temperature resistance, flexibility, thermal conductivity, and efficiency.

Ultimately, understanding these differences will help you make an informed decision about which heater best suits your needs in terms of cost and durability factors.

Remember that selecting the right heating solution is crucial for optimal performance across various industries and applications.

What Is A Polyimide Heater?


Imagine a world where you’re constantly pushing the boundaries of innovation, seeking new ways to make everyday objects more efficient and reliable. You’ve just stumbled upon one such groundbreaking technology: polyimide heaters.

As experts in this field, we know that these flexible heating solutions are transforming industries across the globe, from aerospace to medical devices. If you have an innate desire for progress and improvement, then buckle up! We’ll take you on a journey through the fascinating world of polyimide heaters.

Now, what exactly is a polyimide heater? In simple terms, it’s a thin-film heater made with polyimide – an advanced polymer known for its impressive thermal stability, flexibility, and lightweight properties. This unique combination makes them perfect for applications where space constraints or weight limitations pose challenges.

But wait till you discover how they perform under extreme conditions! These heaters can withstand temperatures as low as -200°C (-328°F) and as high as 260°C (500°F), ensuring consistent performance even when faced with some of the harshest environments imaginable.

Join us as we delve deeper into this remarkable technology that’s revolutionizing industries left and right.

The Science Behind Polyimide Heaters


Polyimide heaters are a marvel of material innovation that have transformed industries by offering lightweight, durable, and highly efficient heating solutions.

At the heart of this invention lies polyimide chemistry which combines exceptional thermal stability with impressive mechanical properties. This unique combination has led to the development of flexible heaters capable of operating in extreme temperatures and environments where other materials would simply fail.

In order to appreciate the ingenuity behind these heaters, one must delve into the world of polyimide chemistry. Polyimides are high-performance polymers characterized by their ability to withstand intense heat while maintaining excellent electrical insulation properties.

The process involves creating long chains composed of imide monomers linked together through covalent bonds, resulting in a robust yet flexible structure. It is this flexibility that allows for the creation of thin films which can be tailored to specific applications, such as conforming to intricate geometries or providing uniform temperature distribution across surfaces.

As we continue to push boundaries and explore new frontiers in technology, there’s no denying that polyimide heaters will play an increasingly important role in shaping our future endeavors. Whether it’s aerospace engineering or medical devices, these versatile heating elements offer endless potential for innovation across multiple domains.

So next time you come across a piece of cutting-edge equipment relying on precise temperature control, remember that it might just have been made possible thanks to the remarkable science behind polyimide heaters.

Key Advantages And Features

Imagine the possibilities of a heating solution that is not only lightweight and versatile, but also offers exceptional thermal performance. This dream becomes reality with polyimide heaters! These remarkable devices are designed to provide efficient heat transfer in various applications while maintaining their form, making them an ideal choice for industries seeking innovation.

One of the key advantages of polyimide heaters is their flexible integration into diverse systems. Their thin profile allows them to be easily incorporated into tight spaces where traditional heaters may not fit. Additionally, they can be customized to meet specific requirements such as voltage, wattage, shape, and size – providing tailored solutions that cater to engineers’ unique needs.

Moreover, these heaters exhibit outstanding dielectric strength and excellent chemical resistance, ensuring long-lasting performance even under harsh conditions.

Another impressive feature of polyimide heaters is their rapid response time due to low thermal mass. They can achieve desired temperatures quickly and maintain consistent heat distribution across surfaces without significant temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, this reduces energy consumption as the heater operates more efficiently than bulky alternatives.

With all these fantastic benefits at hand, it’s no wonder why polyimide heaters continue capturing the interests of innovative minds looking for advanced heating solutions that drive efficiency and progress within their respective fields.

Applications In Various Industries

As experts on polyimide heaters, we can provide you with a more thorough understanding of their usage in various industries. Polyimide heaters have been used in the aerospace industry to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency.

In medical applications, polyimide heaters are often used to heat sensitive equipment. When it comes to the automotive industry, polyimide heaters are great for heating car engines, as well as other automotive components.



Polyimide heaters have become increasingly essential in the aerospace industry, as they offer incredible versatility and reliability when it comes to thermal management.

As an expert in polyimide heater technology, I can attest to the numerous benefits these lightweight, low-profile heating solutions provide for a wide range of applications within this sector.

From satellite systems to aircraft instrumentation, polyimide heaters play a pivotal role in ensuring optimal performance while withstanding harsh environmental conditions.

One crucial application area is aerospace insulation. In order to maintain consistent temperature control for sensitive electronics and components during flight or space travel, high-performance insulators are necessary. Polyimide heaters deliver exceptional heat distribution across large surfaces, making them ideal candidates for use in aerospace insulation. With their ultra-thin design and excellent resistance against radiation exposure, they’re perfect for integrating into advanced spacecraft materials where every inch and ounce counts.

Another key aspect of aerospace innovation lies in effective spacecraft thermal management – which is vital for maintaining operational efficiency on long-duration missions or those subjected to extreme temperature fluctuations.

The unique properties of polyimide heaters enable engineers to create tailored solutions that ensure seamless temperature regulation throughout various stages of launch, orbiting maneuvers, and atmospheric re-entry events. These cutting-edge devices contribute significantly towards enhancing safety measures and mission success rates – ultimately paving the way for new frontiers in human exploration beyond our planet’s boundaries.

So next time you hear about groundbreaking discoveries made by astronauts or innovative satellites orbiting Earth, remember the humble yet powerful polyimide heater playing its part behind the scenes!



While the aerospace industry benefits immensely from polyimide heater technology, it’s not the only sector reaping its rewards. The medical field is another area where these incredible heating solutions have made a significant impact on device integration and patient care.

As an expert in this domain, I can vouch for their immense potential to revolutionize healthcare by ensuring optimal temperature control during intricate procedures.

Polyimide biocompatibility makes them ideal candidates for use within various medical applications. They’re thin, flexible, and possess excellent thermal properties that allow precise heat distribution – making them perfect for integration into complex devices such as surgical tools or wearable health monitors. In addition, their low outgassing characteristics help maintain sterile environments required in operating rooms or laboratories.

So when you hear about life-saving surgeries being performed using cutting-edge equipment or innovative non-invasive treatments gaining traction worldwide, remember the unsung hero – the polyimide heater – working diligently behind the scenes to ensure seamless performance and safety of both patients and medical professionals alike.



But don’t think for a second that the impressive applications of polyimide heaters stop there! In fact, they’re also making quite a splash in the automotive industry.

As vehicles become more advanced and incorporate cutting-edge technology to improve efficiency and sustainability, these flexible heating elements have found their place under the hood – literally.

Flexible assembly is key when it comes to integrating polyimide heaters into various automotive components, from sensors used to monitor engine performance, to electric vehicle batteries requiring temperature regulation for optimal function.

The use of sustainable materials like polyimide contributes significantly to reducing environmental impact while maintaining top-notch performance levels.

Considering the growing demand for electric vehicles and greener transportation options worldwide, this innovative application of polyimide heaters plays an essential role in pushing boundaries and setting new standards in the automotive sector.

So whether you’re fascinated by groundbreaking surgical procedures or envisioning a future where electric cars dominate roadways, remember that these advancements wouldn’t be possible without the unparalleled versatility and effectiveness of polyimide heaters.

Their presence across multiple industries serves as proof not only of their incredible potential but also our relentless pursuit of innovation at every turn.

Overcoming Space And Weight Challenges

As we’ve seen, polyimide heaters have a wide range of applications across various industries. Their versatility and adaptability make them an ideal solution for overcoming the limitations that come with space and weight constraints in many different systems.

With flexible installation options and customizable shapes, these heaters are revolutionizing how we approach heating challenges. Polyimide heaters’ thin and lightweight nature allows for flexible installation even in tight spaces or on irregular surfaces where traditional heaters might not be suitable. This flexibility is crucial when designing innovative products or upgrading existing technologies to improve performance while minimizing size and weight impact.

In addition, their unique construction offers minimal outgassing properties, making them highly compatible with sensitive environments such as aerospace, semiconductor manufacturing, and medical devices. Customizable shapes further enhance the benefits of using polyimide heaters by offering engineers the ability to tailor heater design according to specific application requirements.

Whether it’s integrating complex geometries into pre-existing assemblies or creating entirely new designs from scratch, the possibilities are virtually endless. As the demand for innovation continues to grow in all sectors of technology, you can expect polyimide heaters to play a pivotal role in advancing our abilities to overcome space- and weight-related obstacles through creative problem-solving approaches.

Performance Under Extreme Conditions

One of the most remarkable aspects of polyimide heaters is their extreme durability and ability to thrive under harsh conditions. These cutting-edge heating devices are designed with high-quality materials that can withstand a wide range of temperatures, making them ideal for use in various industries where temperature resistance is critical.

Polyimide heaters excel in applications such as aerospace, medical equipment, and electronics manufacturing due to their thin and flexible nature, allowing them to conform closely to complex surfaces while still providing consistent heat distribution.

Additionally, the superior thermal properties of polyimide enable these heaters to achieve rapid thermal response times. This means they can quickly adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions or requirements without any loss in performance or reliability.

As experts in this field, we understand how crucial it is for businesses working within demanding environments to have access to innovative solutions like polyimide heaters that consistently deliver outstanding results.

By harnessing the power of polyimides’ advanced capabilities, companies can ensure that their processes remain efficient even when faced with challenging situations.

As technology continues to advance at an impressive pace, so too does our understanding of just how valuable these extraordinary heaters truly are.

In fact, recent developments suggest that we may have only scratched the surface regarding what’s possible with polyimide heater technology!

The ongoing research into new applications and advancements will undoubtedly lead us toward even more groundbreaking discoveries – further solidifying the status of polyimide heaters as indispensable tools for those seeking unwavering resilience amidst adversity.

So whether your project demands exceptional endurance or unparalleled adaptability under duress, look no further than these incredible heating elements; they’re built for success against all odds.

The Future Of Polyimide Heating Technology


As we’ve seen, polyimide heaters provide exceptional performance under extreme conditions. Their unique properties make them ideal for a wide range of applications and environments. But what does the future hold for this incredible technology?

With flexible innovation becoming increasingly important in modern industries, it’s safe to say that the potential is vast. Sustainable solutions are at the forefront of research and development in many sectors, and polyimide heating technology is no exception. Advancements in materials science have led to more efficient designs with longer lifespans while maintaining their lightweight form factor.

In turn, these improvements help reduce waste and promote sustainability across various industries. Furthermore, as the demand for eco-friendly products grows, so too will the need for cutting-edge technologies like polyimide heaters that offer both durability and energy efficiency. Looking ahead, one can only imagine how far-reaching the impact of polyimide heating technology could be.

From aerospace to medical devices, its versatility has proven time and again that there are virtually no limits when it comes to application possibilities. As researchers continue to push boundaries by exploring new ways to harness its remarkable characteristics, we’re sure to see even more creative uses emerge – solidifying polyimide heaters’ place among today’s most innovative technological advancements.


In conclusion, as experts in the field of polyimide heaters, we can confidently say that these innovative heating solutions offer numerous advantages over traditional alternatives.

Their lightweight and flexible nature allows them to be seamlessly integrated into a variety of applications across industries.

Furthermore, their ability to perform under extreme conditions showcases the immense potential for growth in the adoption of polyimide heating technology.

As researchers continue to explore new developments, we anticipate even more exciting advancements within this fascinating area.